Kitchen

History

The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the wells, pumps or springs.

 Middle Ages

Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building. The “kitchen area” was between the entrance and the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was typically more than one kitchen. In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens. The kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them.[1] In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire also served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America.

In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate indoor smoke.

The first known stoves in rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source.

The kitchen remained largely unaffected by architectural advances throughout the Middle Ages; open fire remained the only method of heating food. European medieval kitchens were dark, smoky, and sooty places, whence their name “smoke kitchen”. In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire Scotland. In Japanese homes, the kitchen started to become a separate room within the main building at that time.

With the advent of the chimney, the hearth moved from the center of the room to one wall, and the first brick-and-mortar hearths were built. The fire was lit on top of the construction; a vault underneath served to store wood. Pots made of trivet or directly on the hot ashes. Using open fire for cooking (and heating) was risky; fires devastating whole cities occurred frequently.

tiled stoves, operated from the kitchen, which offered the huge advantage of not filling the room with smoke.

Freed from smoke and dirt, the living room thus began to serve as an area for social functions and increasingly became a showcase for the owner’s wealth. In the upper classes, cooking and the kitchen were the domain of the servants, and the kitchen was set apart from the living rooms, sometimes even far from the dining room. Poorer homes often did not have a separate kitchen yet; they kept the one-room arrangement where all activities took place, or at the most had the kitchen in the entrance hall.

The medieval smoke kitchen (or farmhouses and generally in poorer homes, until much later. In a few European farmhouses, the smoke kitchen was in regular use until the middle of the 20th century. These houses often had no chimney, but only a smoke hood above the fireplace, made of wood and covered with clay, used to smoke meat. The smoke rose more or less freely, warming the upstairs rooms and protecting the woodwork from vermin.

Colonial America

In the Colony of Connecticut, as in other states of New England during Colonial America, kitchens were often built as separate rooms and were located behind the parlor and keeping room or dining room. One early record of a kitchen is found in the 1648 inventory of the estate of a John Porter of Windsor, Connecticut. The inventory lists goods in the house over the kittchin and in the kittchin. The items listed in the kitchen were; silver spoons, pewter, brass, iron, arms, ammunition, hemp, flax and other implements about the room.[2]

In the southern states, where the canning during the warm summer months.

Industrialization

Technological advances during gas stove was granted in 1825, it was not until the late 19th century that using gas for lighting and cooking became commonplace in urban areas.

The Chicago, but it was not until the 1930s that the technology was stable enough and began to take off.

Industrialization also caused social changes. The new bathroom. Water had to be fetched from wells and heated on the stove. Water pipes were laid only towards the end of the 19th century, and then often only with one tap per building or per story. Brick-and-mortar stoves fired with coal remained the norm until well into the second half of the century. Pots and kitchenware were typically stored on open shelves, and parts of the room could be separated from the rest using simple curtains.

In contrast, there were no dramatic changes for the upper classes. The kitchen, located in the cupboards to protect them from dust and steam. A large table served as a workbench; there were at least as many chairs as there were servants, for the table in the kitchen also doubled as the eating place for the servants.

The urban middle class imitated the luxurious dining styles of the upper class as best as they could. Living in smaller apartments, the kitchen was the main room—here, the family lived. The study or living room was saved for special occasions such as an occasional dinner invitation. Because of this, these middle-class kitchens were often more homely than those of the upper class, where the kitchen was a work-only room occupied only by the servants. Besides a cupboard to store the fauteuil or a couch.

Gas pipes were first laid in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves. Gas was more expensive than coal, though, and thus the new technology was first installed in the wealthier homes. Where workers’ apartments were equipped with a gas stove, gas distribution would go through a coin meter.

In rural areas, the older technology using coal or wood stoves or even brick-and-mortar open fireplaces remained common throughout. Gas and water pipes were first installed in the big cities; small villages were connected only much later.

Rationalization

The trend to increasing gasification and Christine Frederick’s publications in the 1910s.

A stepstone was the kitchen designed in Frankfurt by Margarethe Schütte-Lihotzky. Working class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family’s survival, as the men’s wages often did not suffice. [3]

The initial reception was critical: it was so small that only one person could work in it; some storage spaces intended for raw loose food ingredients such as World War II economic reasons prevailed. The kitchen once more was seen as a work place that needed to be separated from the living areas. Practical reasons also played a role in this development: just as in the bourgeois homes of the past, one reason for separating the kitchen was to keep the steam and smells of cooking out of the living room.

Unit/fitted

Poggenpohl led innovation in the kitchen area by presenting the “reform kitchen” in 1928 with interconnecting cabinets and functional interiors. The reform kitchen was a forerunner to the later unit kitchen and fitted kitchen. Poggenpohl presented the form 1000, the world’s first unit kitchen, at the citation needed].

The idea of standardized was first introduced locally with the Frankfurt kitchen, but later defined new in the “Swedish kitchen” (Svensk köksstandard, Swedish kitchen standard). The equipment used remained a standard for years to come: hot and cold water on tap and a kitchen sink and an electrical or gas stove and oven. Not much later, the citation needed].

Unit construction since its introduction has defined the development of the modern kitchen. Pre-manufactured modules using mass manufacturing techniques developed during wall units” or “wall cabinets”. In small areas of kitchen in an apartment, even a “tall storage unit” is available for effective storage. In cheaper brands, all cabinets are kept a uniform color, normally white, with interchangeable doors and accessories chosen by the customer to give a varied look. In more expensive brands, the cabinets are produced matching the doors’ colors and finishes, for an older more bespoke look.

Technicalization

A trend began in the 1940s in the United States to equip the kitchen with electrified Europe for low-price, high-tech consumer goods led to Western European kitchens being designed to accommodate new appliances such as refrigerators and electric/gas cookers.

Parallel to this development in tenement buildings was the evolution of the kitchen in homeowner’s houses. There, the kitchens usually were somewhat larger, suitable for everyday use as a dining room, but otherwise the ongoing technicalization was the same, and the use of unit furniture also became a standard in this market sector.

General technocentric enthusiasm even led some designers to take the “work kitchen” approach even further, culminating in futuristic designs like Luigi Colani’s “kitchen satellite” (1969, commissioned by the German high-end kitchen manufacturer Poggenpohl for an exhibit), in which the room was reduced to a ball with a chair in the middle and all appliances at arm’s length, an optimal arrangement maybe for “applying heat to food”, but not necessarily for actual cooking. Such extravaganzas remained outside the norm, though.

In the former East Germany for instance, the standard tenement block of the model “P2″ had tiny 4 m² kitchens in the inside of the building (no windows), connected to the dining and living room of the 55 m² apartment and separated from the latter by a pass-through or a window.

Open kitchens

Starting in the 1980s, the perfection of the skylights. The extractor hood made it possible to build open kitchens in apartments, too, where both high ceilings and skylights were not possible.

The re-integration of the kitchen and the living area went hand in hand with a change in the perception of cooking: increasingly, cooking was seen as a architects have capitalized on this “object” aspect of the kitchen by designing freestanding “kitchen objects”. However, like their precursor, Colani’s “kitchen satellite”, such futuristic designs are exceptions.

Another reason for the trend back to open kitchens (and a foundation of the “kitchen object” philosophy) is changes in how food is prepared. Whereas prior to the 1950s most cooking started out with raw ingredients and a meal had to be prepared from scratch, the advent of convenience food changed the cooking habits of many people, who consequently used the kitchen less and less. For others, who followed the “cooking as a social act” trend, the open kitchen had the advantage that they could be with their guests while cooking, and for the “creative cooks” it might even become a stage for their cooking performance. The “Trophy Kitchen” is highly equipped with very expensive and sophisticated appliances which are used primarily to impress visitors and to project social status, rather than for actual cooking.

Ventilation

The ventilation of a kitchen, in particular a large restaurant kitchen, poses certain difficulties that are not present in the ventilation of other kinds of spaces. In particular, the air in a kitchen differs from that of other rooms in that it typically contains grease, smoke and odours.

Materials

The Frankfurt Kitchen of 1926 was made of several materials depend on the application. The built-in kitchens of today use particle boards or MDF, decorated with veneers, in some cases also wood. Very few manufacturer produce home built-in kitchens from stainless-steel. Until the 1950s steel kitchen were used by architects, but thsi material was displaced by the cheaper particle boards sometimes decorated with a steel surface.

Domestic kitchen planning

Domestic (or residential) kitchen design per se is a relatively recent discipline. The first ideas to optimize the work in the kitchen go back to ergonomics. The design included regular shelves on the walls, ample work space, and dedicated storage areas for various food items. Beecher even separated the functions of preparing food and cooking it altogether by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen.

Frankfurt kitchen, which embodied this new notion of efficiency in the kitchen.

While this “work kitchen” and variants derived from it were a great success for tenement buildings, home owners had different demands and did not want to be constrained by a 6.4 m² kitchen. Nevertheless, kitchen design was mostly ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. In the triangle, with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each.

This observation led to a few common kitchen forms, commonly characterized by the arrangement of the kitchen cabinets and sink, stove, and refrigerator:

  • A single-file kitchen (or one-way galley) has all of these along one wall; the work triangle degenerates to a line. This is not optimal, but often the only solution if space is restricted. This may be common in an attic space that is being converted into a living space, or a studio apartment.
  • The double-file kitchen (or two-way galley) has two rows of cabinets at opposite walls, one containing the stove and the sink, the other the refrigerator. This is the classical work kitchen.
  • In the L-kitchen, the cabinets occupy two adjacent walls. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it does not intersect the triangle.
  • A U-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, typically with the sink at the base of the “U”. This is a typical work kitchen, too, unless the two other cabinet rows are short enough to place a table at the fourth wall.
  • A G-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, like the U-kitchen, and also a partial fourth wall, often with a double basin sink at the corner of the G shape. The G-kitchen provides additional work and storage space, and can support two work triangles. A modified version of the G-kitchen is the double-L, which splits the G into two L-shaped components, essentially adding a smaller L-shaped island or peninsula to the L-kitchen.
  • The block kitchen (or island) is a more recent development, typically found in open kitchens. Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where an L or U kitchen would have a table, in a freestanding “island”, separated from the other cabinets. In a closed room, this does not make much sense, but in an open kitchen, it makes the stove accessible from all sides such that two persons can cook together, and allows for contact with guests or the rest of the family, since the cook does not face the wall anymore. Additionally, the kitchen island’s countertop can function as an overflow-surface for serving buffet style meals or sitting down to eat breakfast and snacks.[4]

In the 1980s, there was a backlash against industrial kitchen planning and cabinets with people installing a mix of work surfaces and free standing furniture, led by kitchen designer Johnny Grey and his concept of the “Unfitted Kitchen”.

Modern kitchens often have enough informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dining room. Such areas are called “breakfast areas”, “breakfast nooks” or “breakfast bars” if the space is integrated into a kitchen counter. Kitchens with enough space to eat in are sometimes called “eat-in kitchens”.

Other kitchen types

public health laws – They are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law.

Canteen kitchens (and castle kitchens) were often the places where new technology was used first. For instance, Benjamin Thompson’s “energy saving stove”, an early-19th century fully closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for large kitchens; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use.

Today’s western restaurant kitchens typically have tiled walls and floors and use stainless steel for other surfaces (workbench, but also door and drawer fronts) because these materials are durable and easy to clean. Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allow cooks to regulate the heat more quickly and more finely than electrical stoves. Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers, steamers, or a bain-marie. (As of 2004, steamers — not to be confused with a pressure cooker — are beginning to find their way into domestic households, sometimes as a combined appliance of oven and steamer.)

The kitchens in dehydrated, and sealed in plastic pouches, and the kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module.

Outdoor areas in which food is prepared are generally not considered to be kitchens, even though an outdoor area set up for regular food preparation, for instance when nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents.

In schools where home economics (HE) or sink, and kitchen utensils.

Kitchen types by region

Japan

Kitchens in Japan are called Daidokoro (??;lit. “kitchen”). Daidokoro is the place where food is prepared in a Japanese language that involve kamado as it was considered the symbol of a house and the term could even be used to mean “family” or “household” (similar to the English word “hearth”). When separating a family, it was called Kamado wo wakeru, which means “divide the stove”. Kamado wo yaburu (lit. “break the stove”) means that the family was bankrupt.

 

Bibliography

  • Beecher, C. E. and Beecher Stowe, H.: The American Woman’s Home, 1869.[5]
  • Cahill, Nicolas. Household and City Organization at Olynthus ISBN 0-300-08495-1
  • Cromley, Elizabeth Collins. The Food Axis: Cooking, Eating, and the Architecture of American Houses (University of Virginia Press; 2011); 288 pages; Explores the history of American houses through a focus on spaces for food preparation, cooking, consumption, and disposal.
  • Harrison, M.: The Kitchen in History, Osprey; 1972; ISBN 0-85045-068-3
  • Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A.: The Bathroom, the Kitchen, and the Aesthetics of Waste, Princeton Architectural Press; 1996; ISBN 1-56898-096-5.[6]
  • Snodgrass, M. E.: Encyclopedia of Kitchen History; Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; (November 2004); ISBN 1-57958-380-6

References

  1. ^ Thompson, Theodor, Medieval Homes, Sampson Lowel House 1992
  2. [1]
  3. ^ Modernist triumph in the kitchen
  4. ^ http://cabinets-q-and-a.com/kitchen-island.html
  5. ^ The American Woman’s Home
  6. ^ The Bathroom, the Kitchen and the Aesthetics of Waste

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Kitchen, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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